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Hae Pocc ocao ooo oea pocccx ax p o cpae c apye paa oycoo eoo yao ooeco cyae, coec ceo cpae, caopa poo papyypo, co pco eoe oaec o ca a epeo pe, eoxoo ycaoe ypca a coepe ceo c a, ee opaeoe xoee, a ae peee paea o oaeo poae epe ae p 50% copo py, oyaeo -.

pee p a ao pe po coe c cao p, a ae aooaeco P, peypy poeee ax . Baa pa e . pao yacoa pax a e e ee ypee, a ae opaa, pe e p.

aa opo papeeo ocye oepa yx o:

- o coeo e o opye e;

- o coeo e a co ce.

a opo oy oep ocyecee oepa a ao pe co peae, opx ey epa. Oao ep a ao pe e oe ocyec ce c, o e pecaee yaca po. B pex pax eo yac oy pecae oo aoo.

opo ae ax ceo a pe peae cy opao.

1. K pae peee o oye poae ocpao pae yaca opo, epe oopoo yy ocyc . Ta opao, e ya po poaa oyae a. Ceye e y, ee poao oyaee o a ppe, opaa, a o a, e e epaoo aa Pocc a coepee oepa c ocpao . B c co cey xapaepo ax ceo ay ece c ee oopeeo yaaae a coepee oepa c a.

2. Coaee ey eo yaco opo. Ec yac po p ae eo c ao cyae o coeo e o opye ea a eo ce, coaee c eo oope o eo ycope ceo, .e. oyeao (ceoe opyeco, ac, eec), yco.

3. opoe cpec ea oe ceo. Ta a yac po a ao pe ece acoy eec a eoee e cox oaec, o pae peoa o eo opoa ep aao po ce a cy e, aeo eo pa ocpao ae pyx.

4. ope a ea. oy ( poa) op a pcae yacy po ay.

B ae oe yaa ay ce ee o, paep ce peoe a ypc (ec aa "poaa"), o opoy coace ee y ( ). Ec a "epoaa", yaae, o aa oe yea ( poaa) o eyey peoy ypcy.

B ae a oyy ocpao a e eappy e ee . Ka pao, aee e cya pace o cey a oepa:

- oya apo ycy, pa a eeyay coceoc, pace o op ocye a ycox e cpo aea e peoaa pecae pee aex cpec opao ae;

- epeo a pay eo o ec ooy Pocc;

- ocycee eyx aee o ae poe ocooo oa o pe a cpeca . .

5. Ope yoooeo ae ceaoo cea ea. Ceae ca cya yea ocpao a, yeo e a ao pe, opac yoooex aax, oyx opye ea a oyy ocpao a. oooe a ocyce opo a ee cooae cpe, axoxc a yaao cee, yae ocyee ccae acox pecypco o pee ea coecyx oye.

B cae, ec opaa aa yea a ao pe c pee cooecyx oye, ee eoxoo cooa eee e oee yx ece o a ee ace a cea ce. Ho ec aa yea e a coyx oye, oa oa paoaa eee e oee 15 paox e a ee ace a yaa ce. o ee cpoo xpae ecooay ay ea yooo a oa poa a ao pe a opex opax.

6. aa yaca opo a oyy / poay ocpao . ya oye poae opao a epe aao opo ee yac pa ypcooy aepy, eyey peo op, papee a ce o a cpe a x oppecoex ceax ocyax x aax. Kaa aa pa oe peoeoa yaca po p oppecoee cea opx aax. B aax yaco po e ae paa a oepa, pooe a co c, a ae o opye e yoooex ao, e xc ea ao p. Paa a a peapex ao yao po:

- a oe yae pax;

- a aooe yace pax.

B ae yaca po yaae cya oy poa ocpao a, a ae ee ypc, o opoy o o y poa ay. Cya oy poa ocpao a yaae oapax CA. B 1994 . aa cya oy poa ocpao a cocaa 10 c. o. . B eee ceo peoo eo yac epe cox paee oy oaa ooee a, e cy oy poa, a ae ypc paee oax ao.

peapee a o pecae yaca po e oee, e a 1 o aaa ayoa.

7. peo op a ao pe poo ope ayoa, op ee ypcoo aep. B eo oao ae xo opeeee eyeo ypca ocpao a py.

p poee ayoa ao ycao aa ypc a, c opoo aaec ayo. B aece aaoo ypca oy coac:

- ypc, acpoa a peyx opax ao ao p;

- oce ypc B;

- oa ypc epaoo aa .

Kao yaax ypco pa a aa ypc, ycaaae peo coe opeo p.

epe aao pa ypcoo aep oe cy ao a poay . a a poay coca peoee, a oyy - cpoc.

Oaoc aepa aaec ycaoe aaca ey cpoco poee, . e. o oe oc ca.

c - o cocoe opo, p oopo oe ao a poy ocpao a coc pa oey o a ee oyy. oe oce ca e oe aepe po (ayoa). c xapaepye opee ypco ocpao a aoao, op aoc ypco ae eo ocyece pace o a ax opax. c e oae aoaec. Cyecy opeeee paa, ooe eo .

1. Ec peoee peae cpoc, o aep oa ypc a; p pee cpoca a poee aep, apo, oae ypc ocpao a o ooe .

Hapep, oe oy cocae 1200 ycox e a, a oe poa 800, .e. oe oy peae oe poa, o coae yco poca ypca a. B cyae oce ca eoxoo:

) c (ye) oe oy;

) .

Ec e oe oy ye coca 800 ycox e a, a oe pa 1200, oe poa pec oe oy, . e. ypc a ae . B cyae oce ca eoxo:

) c (ye) oe pa;

) .

2. He oycaec eee apae e ypca ocpao a aoao oce epoo ee aaoo (cpoo) ypca.

3. Ea ee ypca opao a aoao poecce po opee ypco aepo. B aco o pa ey cpoco poee oa oe ycaaac o 0,1 o 10 .

4. ooee a o ee cy oy pa oa yaca po epe cox epo.

5. Koppepoa ooeo a, ee coooee cpoca poe a opaoe, aaec oe ee a oee, opoo e xaae ee yoope.

p oppepoe ao coy ceye x :

- oaa ay a pay;

- yeaa oe oy a;

- yeaa oe oy a;

- caa ay c pa.

p oopeeo ocye oo ao o pax epo pope ee aa, acaa o ee.

cxo pa oce ca oo a aepax apaa ycaoe peoo ypca. [5]

Bapa ep. o aa, ocy a py o aaa po, ypcoo aep (oaoe o p) ycaaae epx pee ("ypcoo ca"), paax opx pooeo oe ye acpoa ooae ypc po, apep, a 1 o. CA - 1900-2000 py.: 2000 py. - ypc poaa (o y ypcy pecaeo aoe oeco ao a pay), 1900 py. - ypc oyae (o y ypcy oyo aoee oeco ao a oyy).

Paccp ec ypcooo aepa yao po.

ec ypcooo aep. Kae 3 ypcoo aep ee ypc py cpoy oe (ec cpoc peae poee) oe (ec poee peae cpoc). Kypcoo aep (eo oo) cpye poecce po ce ee, ecee ee yaca ooe oeca aeo a yco ee poa.

ec yaco . oce oe "ypcoo ac" yac po oa oe a oa paee oae epe epo, axoxc peo ae, c op o ca epe cpca c. oaa ox ao o capx ocyee epoec (c epao 3 ) o epe ee aoo ypca.

oaa ox o apx ao ac o coooe cpoca poe.

p pee cpoca a peoee:

- poa a oy ye oeo peaaeo a, a ae e yco paee ax ao cpoy oe ypca py o, o caacpoa cpoc poee;

- oyae a oy ye oeco oyaeo a, a ae e yco paee oax ao cpoy oe ypca a o ooe py.

p pee peoe a cpoco:

- poa a oo yea oeco poaaeo a, a ae e yco paee oax ao cpoy oe ypca py;

- oyae a, a pao, yea oeco oyaeo a, a ae e yco paee oax ao copoy oe ypca py.

p ocyece ca ypcoo aep cpe y, o o yoeopeo acao oooe oeco ao o oy ypcy.

Bapa opo. Ayo aae co capooo yp. peypoae cpoca peoe pocxo peeax pa ey cpoco poee. B oe, oa cpoc peoee ypaoeac pap ey ee a poooo, pocxo c, p . Bce opee ce a aee cy coepac o acpoaoy ypcy.

Hapep: cpoc 892 . py.; peoee 417 . py.

oce ca ypc cpay e ca a aoo aa. pa opay oepay ya cpeeo ypca poaa oyae .

8. Pecpa oepa o ye-poae. Bce oepa yaco po o ye-pae ocpao a eeeeo peppy a ao pe c yaae:

- oeo oy poa ocpao a (c eee oepa, poox a co c o opye e);

- oeo poa ocpao a co ceax ce;

- aoo ypca o ae ea;

- e, ocyecx oyy poay opao a;

- ee oy ea opao .

Oao cey oe, coaco aooaey P aa opa o yacax po e oepeco ao oa .

9. Pace o cea. oce ooa pex po aee ce oop pe ceea, e cy ooopa. O ca yx epax, oca ypco aepo yaa pa. Pace yao po o cea, ae a ao pe, ocyec a ocoa pex cec, cooec c ycaoe opo pace o pe oepa c ocpao a, opee:

1) a, op opae ca yaco po yacye paceax;

2) cpo ocyee pace o ea;

3) eeo yaco po ao p a apyee opa cpoa poee .

150 57,8% 25 90%. ( - 30%).

, 1000 .

:

100%,

t = 25 ( );

= 0,578 1000 . = 578 . ( );

= 0,9 1000 . = 900 . ( ).

100% = 8,13%

:

100%,

t = 125 ( );

n = 0,3 ( ).

100% = 2,32%

1. .. . : - .: 1 , 1998. - 352 .

2. . : , . - .: , 2002. - 624 .

3. .. : / .. - .: : - , 2006 - 288 .

4. .. / .. , .. , .. ./ . . .. . - .: - , 1997 - 559 .

5. .. / . - : - . --: - , 2003 - 618 .

6. . // . - 2007. 21 (348).

: 1, 2, 3




2009 .